Grundy E, Tomassini C. Fatherhood history and later life health and mortality in England and Wales: a broad linkage study. Social Biology 2006; 53 (appeared in 2009 (3-4): 189-205.

Fatherhood is an important domain in the lives of most men but, in contrast to extensive research into associations between marriage and health, possible effects of paternity on later life health and mortality have attracted relatively little attention. Of those studies that have been undertaken, many relate to historical or less developed country populations with high levels of fertility and much less is known about associations in contemporary developed societies. In this paper we use data from a large nationally representative record linkage study of men in England and Wales to analyse associations between aspects of paternity history and subsequent mortality and health in a sample of 20,260 mature men in long-term first marriages.