Blackwell L, Guinea-Martin D. Occupational segregation by sex and ethnicity in England and Wales, 1991 to 2001. Labour Market Trends 2005; 113 (12): 501-516.

The labour force is structured by sex. Men typically work continuously up to retirement while women have more varied patterns of labour force attachment. In addition, men and women tend to work in different occupations. Occupational segregation gives rise to inequality when one group is more likely to work in the better-paid occupations. Patterns of occupational sex segregation and disadvantage vary for different ethnic groups. In addition, women and men in each ethnic group are occupationally segregated from the rest of the labour force to varying degrees. Ethnic segregation reveals patterns of inequality when ethnic minorities are compared with the White majority. This article describes trends in occupational segregation of the sexes and the different ethnic groups and concomitant disadvantage in England and Wales at the 1991 and 2001 Censuses. Results from the ONS Longitudinal Study (LS) and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) are also presented.