Reid A, Harding S. An examination of persisting disadvantage and mortality in the regions using the Longitudinal Study. Health Statistics Quarterly 2000; 06:

This paper examines regional differences in long term disadvantage and its impact on regional inequalities in mortality. Long term disadvantage was measured by living in rented housing in the 1092 and 1991 Census and long term advantage was measured by being in owner occupied housing on both occasions. Together these two groups comprised 83 percent of those that stayed in the same region. Using this measure, long term disadvantage was greater in the North than the South. This indicator of long term disadvantage was strongly associated with mortality in 1991-97. Region of residence was also linked to mortality. Adjusting for differences in long term disadvantage did not explain the overall North/South divide.