Ecob R, Jones K. Mortality variations in England and Wales between types of place: An analysis of the ONS Longitudinal study. Social Science & Medicine 1998; 47 (12): 2055-2066.

This study investigates the extent to which individuals, in England and Wales, in different types of place experience differential mortality once account is taken of personal (individual and household) social circumstances; Data comes from the Longitudinal Study of England and Wales of the Office of National Statistics, the respondents being a one percent national random sample of people aged between 25 and 74 at the 1971 census, followed until the end of 1985. For males and females separately, differences in mortality are found for the 36 types of Craig-Webber classification in models which include, at the individual level, a number of demographic and socio-economic variables (women being classified by their own occupation). In general, for both males and females, the same types of place have elevated or lowered mortality. For males a (cross-level) interaction exists between the proportion in the area in professional social classes and individual social class, the effects of individual social class being larger in areas containing a higher proportion of those in professional occupations. For females mortality is negatively related to the proportion of car-ownership in the area. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.