Sloggett A, Joshi H. Indicators of deprivation in people and places: longitudinal perspectives. Environment and Planning A 1998a; 30: 1055-1076.

The Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study of England and Wales is used to describe the prevalence in individuals, over time, of a set of variables commonly used in the construction of indicators of area deprivation. These variables are: housing tenure, car access, low skill, and unemployment. Over three censuses between 1971 and 1991, these states appear neither completely permanent nor entirely random. The picture is one of changing fortunes; many individuals temporarily disadvantaged revolving around a core of those experiencing more long-term disadvantage. This is especially true of unemployment. Used in multivariate models to predict health and deprivation outcomes in 1991, the individual characteristics from both 1971 and 1981 have stronger predictive power than ward scores on deprivation indicators. The relation between spatial mobility and the health and social outcomes appears favourable only for young adults.